In everyone’s daily life We see the occurrence of chemical energy every day. For example, the combustion of gas we use to cook. The combustion of things, etc., and we have seen the nuclear energy from the sun every day as well.
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But we will feel that nuclear energy is far away. But in everyday life, everyone takes advantage of nuclear energy. as mentioned in the beginning And in the future we may need to bring nuclear power. To be used in everyday life more, for example, we may need a nuclear power plant. Because the main source of energy is oil. and natural gas is about to disappear from the world. The main difference between nuclear energy and chemical energy is nuclear energy It is the energy released from nuclear power. Chemical energy is energy released by atoms. And another important difference is that nuclear fuel will provide much more energy than chemical fuels
nuclear reaction means The reaction takes place due to the nuclear transition of radioactive elements. This change may occur spontaneously. or caused by human action by firing high-energy particles at the target’s nucleus In order to break the target, it is divided into two types:
1) Nuclear fission 2) Nuclear fusion
1) nuclear fission reaction
nuclear fission reaction It is a nuclear reaction caused by small particles with high energy colliding with the nucleus of a heavy element. The target’s nucleus splits into two new nuclei, which are smaller and contain new neutrons with great amounts of energy.
In nature, elements with large nuclei are unstable. And will have to adjust the balance all the time, for example, uranium is an unstable element. The equilibrium is achieved by emitting alpha particles and turning them into thorium. with the release of energy Nuclear fission reactions can be classified into two types:
- a) spontaneous fission b) stimulated fission
- a) Spontaneous fission is a form of decay of radioactive elements. with large nuclei with a mass number greater than 230
- b) Induced fission Nuclei to undergo induced fission must be nuclei of heavy elements with a mass number 130 or higher. with the mass number The energy of about 130 is about 100 MeV, while about 200 about 30 MeV is the energy for fission most commonly used. It is the fission of uranium-235, which is used to power nuclear reactors at nuclear power plants.
When a fission reaction occurs it will get the product after the reaction The product of the fission reaction yields two intermediate elements in each nuclear fission. not necessarily the same
Uranium-235 nuclear fission may yield barium, krypton, lanthanum, and cerium, all of which have more stable nuclei than uranium-235.
In nuclear fission 1, 2 or 3 neutrons are formed in the reaction. This causes 2-3 more neighboring nuclei to split apart. This continues in a chain reaction.
A chain reaction refers to a reaction produced by firing neutrons towards the nucleus of a target. and ruptures the nucleus of the target along with one or more neutrons These newly formed neutrons act as projectiles that fire at other neighboring nuclei. This continues, and more and more energy is released as the number of nuclei fission.
Major reasons for using neutrons is the cause of the nuclear fission reaction is that neutrons are non-electrically charged particles. Therefore, the nucleus can be easily accessed.
A chain is a reaction that proceeds continuously as a result of a previous reaction. chain reaction in nuclear reactions In nuclear reactions, neutrons split uranium nuclei into two intermediate elements. A nuclear chain reaction releases millions of times more energy than a chemical chain reaction.
In the early days, nuclear fission was utilized. The chain reaction cannot be controlled, so nuclear fission can be utilized. It is therefore a use of nuclear bombs.
But when nuclear science grows more And humans gained a better understanding of nuclear physics, eventually able to control nuclear fission. The device that controls the nuclear fission reaction is control rod
The fission rate was controlled by rods using cadmium, graphite or boron rods inserted into the reactor at different distances and with proper placement. to absorb neutrons from nuclear reactions Make the number of neutrons required for the reaction.
After a nuclear reactor Humans can bring nuclear energy to use more, such as bringing nuclear energy to use as a heat source in a nuclear power plant. large aircraft carriers or nuclear-powered submarines, etc.